Hoppa till sidinnehåll

Writing in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: A bimodal bilingual perspective on their written products and writing processes

Publicerad:10 januari
Uppdaterad:14 mars

Moa Gärdenfors har i sin avhandling undersökt och beskrivit de skriftliga produkterna och skrivprocesserna hos döva och hörselskadade barn med hjälp av ett tangentloggningsprogram som registrerar deras skrivbeteende i realtid.


Moa Gärdenfors


Docent Krister Schönström, Stockholms universitet Professor Victoria Johansson, Högskolan Kristianstad.


Dr Naomi Caselli, Boston University

Disputerat vid

Stockholms universitet



Abstract in English

This thesis presents unique insights into the written products and writing processes of Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children using a keystroke logging tool. Writing processes encompass the activities (such as planning or revision) that writers engage in during the production of the written text. The thesis explores how the diverse backgrounds of these children, including age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree, and sign language proficiency, may influence their narrative texts. The study includes 58 children and adolescents aged 8–18, with varying degrees of hearing loss and linguistic backgrounds in spoken and written Swedish and Swedish Sign Language.

This research comprises four studies that collectively demonstrate that DHH children using hearing technology produce written products closely resembling those of children of deaf adults (CODA) and hearing children. The only notable exceptions are in terms of lexical density and text length, both of which may be associated with their reduced auditory input. The finding of few other differences is unique from an international perspective and may be attributed to the effectiveness of early interventions in the Swedish context which, for instance, include sign language courses for parents, bilingual schools, early hearing screening, and early cochlear implant operations. Regarding the writing process, DHH children exhibit a “here-and-now” planning strategy similar to same-age hearing peers. However, the DHH group shows distinctive patterns in writing fluency, with a more deliberate pace and a tendency to revise work more frequently. This writing behavior may be attributed to slower lexical retrieval and phonological challenges from their specific auditory backgrounds. Extensive local revisions and repeated spelling attempts, visible in the writing processes in the DHH group, may explain the minor differences between the DHH and the hearing groups in their written products.

When considering background factors, age plays a crucial role. DHH children follow a developmental trajectory similar to their hearing peers, albeit with slight delays, suggesting continuous development. Gender differences are observed, with girls demonstrating higher proficiency in writing. The age of acquisition does not predict writing outcomes, likely due to early linguistic input and support. Hearing loss predicts a higher cognitive load for DHH children in writing. The connection between spoken language and writing is less direct, which may explain why they need more time, effort and strategies to write. DHH children proficient in both sign and spoken languages seem to perform as well as or even better than their non-signing peers in writing tasks, producing more clauses and adjectives. The latter can be interpreted as a transfer from sign languages’ inherently descriptive nature. This also indicates that sign language proficiency, along with spoken language, does not hinder written language development.

In summary, this thesis provides a comprehensive understanding of DHH children’s written products and writing processes, highlighting the multifaceted effects of age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree and sign language proficiency. The thesis offers insights into the writing behavior and the strategies they employ and contributes to areas such as writing and bilingualism. Finally, the results may be of interest to parents, educators, and researchers seeking a deeper understanding of the writing of the DHH group.

Dela via: 

Relaterade artiklar

Relaterat innehåll

Senaste magasinen

Läs mer